The nursery is a facility for children living in Germany have completed the third and fourth years in Switzerland and Austria must be at least two and a half years old, but still not in school. In contrast denver car accident lawyer to this one speaks for organizations / groups for younger children mostly from the nursery and from nursery furniture and fixtures / groups for children of primary school age. According to Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel , the founder (founders actually) of the first kindergarten, the term is now used increasingly as a collective term for all the facilities of child day care.
Kindergarten in Afghanistan
The kindergarten is associated with Germany and Austria in the social sector, in Germany, he belongs to the children and youth services in Austria, he ressortiert in the “Social Security”. This implies a socio-educational orientation with an education – education – and support contract. The kindergarten complements family education, he also provides children with advanced and comprehensive experience and education on the family environment. Unlike the schools in the state has no independent children’s day care, independent of parental rights order. This order of the kindergarten is derived from the parental rights and conferred upon it by the (care) contract. During the debate on education, especially in Germany, the average performance in the international PISA study was strengthened, the attention turned increasingly to the educational mission of the nursery (see also preschool ).
In Switzerland, the kindergarten part of the school system .
There is also sometimes the term Denver Divorce Attorney nursery school uses. Otherwise kindergarten children in Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Vorarlberg are often called Kindergärtler known.
In terms of opening times can be roughly three forms:
Part-time care , morning and / or afternoon
Offer extended morning , from morning until after lunch
Full day care , from morning to late afternoon. These facilities are called in Germany often nurseries (short Kita), Tagheime or day nursery. Recently, carriers offer in terms of reconciling family and work on increasingly extended periods of care include that begin very early in the morning (5:30 clock) until late in the evening range (20 clock) and Saturdays and overnight accommodations.
In most German kindergartens operate various educational professionals, such as educators , social workers , nursery nurses and social assistants . In Austria, are employed in kindergartens specially trained kindergarten teachers, child care and support forces.
Entertain in Germany kindergartens – regionally in very different proportions – by free carriers or by the municipalities . Free carriers are primarily religious institution, institution of voluntary welfare , associations and parent associations or private carrier.
Everyday life in a forest nursery
Or in addition to the nursery, there are usually special education and special education kindergartens, which are mostly operated as an integrated nursery schools, so children with and without disabilities or special needs care together. Sometimes distinguished from kindergarten through a special offer or educational profile, as There are also kindergartens, which are conducted in the language and after the educational foundations of other countries (for example, French, Italian or Spanish nursery).
Increasingly, institutions are no longer by age groups (nursery, kindergarten, nursery) or by target groups (children with special educational needs) operated separately, but in an integrated or at least a combined form.
Historical Background .
By the industrial revolution associated rural depopulation and the replacement of the extended family were changing family and social circumstances in which children were growing up, dramatically. Women were increasingly involved in the industrial production process. Especially in the rapidly growing cities with mass accommodation inadequate housing and living conditions neglected the children.
From the child-care institution for kindergarten as an educational concept .
“Child-care institution from 1852″
in the Town of Hamburg
The first kind of kindergarten in Germany in 1780 Straubing launched   . For the general development of the preschool was including the forgotten Teréz Countess of Brunszvik important. Called founded on 1 June 1828, the first child care facility under the name “Angel Garden” in Buda. In her early years she lived among other things, in Switzerland, where she Pestalozzi met. This meeting was crucial for their future. She was a pioneer of women’s education in Hungary. They themselves established gardens eleven children, a vocational school, a girls’ high educational institution (in collaboration with her niece, Countess Blanka Teleki) and a home economics school. 1836 they called a club for the opening of kindergartens in life. Their educational experience, they gave up their trips to Germany ( Munich and Augsburg ), England, Italy and so on. Until her death in 1861, the number of kindergartens in Hungary grew to 80 The countess urged the government to regulate the formation of kindergarten teachers and wrote several textbooks on the importance of early childhood education. Running since 1837 in Hungary, the kindergarten teacher-training continuously since 1 September 1959 as a university.
Wilhelm Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), founder of the kindergarten
Johann Sperl : kindergarten, about 1885
Albert Anker , infants school on the church-span bridge in Bern , 1900
After first attempts towards the end of the 18th Century , including John Frederick Oberlin , Louise Scheppler or 1802 Pauline of Lippe  founded in 1840 in Thuringia Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel the first kindergarten in Germany in Blankenburg . Just two years earlier had Marlis houses priest Johann Samuel Ferdinand Blumröder a small child-care institution in which to black-Sondershausen associated village was founded. In 1835 who was born in Erfurt composer Carl Reinthaler suggested (1794-1863), to five years before the first Froebel’s kindergarten, the creation of a so-called wait-and nursing home for young children, also known as a waiting School Association. Together with five “honorable men” of the city, on 23 May 1835 in the meeting room of the urban poor, the Commission signed memorandum. As evident from the documents received in full at that time, standing on the opening day, the 20th July 1835, a single mother with her child at the gate of the hospital where the children should be protected and preserved initially (twelve had been expected). A specially examinierte wife looked after the ever-widening group of children that respond rapidly to 20 – grew 30 children. 
Friedrich Froebel, the “father” of the kindergarten. The discovery of the name kindergarten teacher known as the revelation that befell him in the spring of 1840 on a hike from Blankenburg to Keilhau  . For him, the child should be in the children’s garden as a plant can be cultivated and nurtured. Originally, the facility for children from 2 to 7 years, a perception site for mothers who zusprach Friedrich Froebel, the crucial role in raising children to be, to show that the handling of the products developed by the educators and employment agents play offerings. General should radiate a positive impact from kindergarten to the family.
In 1851, the kindergarten “because of atheistic tendencies” in Prussia banned. Lead was then Prussian minister Karl Otto von Raumer . For the “Royal. Prussian Ministry of the clergy, teaching and medical matters were considered “educational ideas of Friedrich Froebel as pernicious and completely groundless (quoted Nacke 1853, p 358). On the initiative of Fröbelepigonin Bertha von Bulow-Marenholtz and social politician Adolf Lette , the kindergarten ban could be lifted in 1860. This paved the way for the establishment of nursery schools, in particular women in the Froebel had a succession   . For example, founded Angelika Hartmann 1864 in Köthen (approximate) after a kindergarten Froebel and 1876, the “Leipziger Froebel Association.”
An important figure in the development of the kindergarten teacher was the August Köhler . It was in 1863 next to Eleanor Heerwart , Minna Schellhorn, Julie Traberth and Auguste Moeder  , initiator and co-founder of the “German Froebel Society,” at first for Thuringia , from the 1872 “General Froebel Society” and a year later, in 1873, the “German Froebel Association showed. ” Kohler has developed an independent “Koehler-kindergarten education.” He was also co-founder and first editor of the first trade magazine for the kindergarten, the first time in 1860 under the title Children’s Garden and elementary class appeared.
The proportion of children in the kindergarten room was available, reached in 1910 about 13%. This remained the case in the Weimar Republic Sun From about 1920 spread increases the Montessori method . Clara Grunwald in martial arts denver 1925 founded the “German Montessori Society” and Kate Stern argued for the “Advanced Montessori system.” This attempted a synthesis of the Froebel Education manufacture, while the most recent findings of developmental psychology (among other things, Rosa Katz , Charlotte Buhler , Hildegard Hetzer and Martha Muchow ) into consideration.
In the period from 1933 to 1945, the kindergarten in the focus of the brown ideology  . This is of particular importance was the typical German education for boys and girls:
“We want to use a hard race that is strong, reliable, loyal, obedient and decent … The little boy will be once a German soldier, the little girl, a German Mother ”  .
During the Nazi dictatorship, the number of kindergarten places in Germany has more than doubled (supply rate in 1941: 31%).
After the collapse of the Nazi dictatorship, the guiding principles for teaching kindergarten in East and West have evolved differently. In both German states, the pre-school institution became more and more of a Aufbewahranstalt an important educational institution, a place for tires and learning. Whereas in the FRG, the education of a democratic and free personality was important was for the children in the GDR  the political and ideological influence in the foreground:
“Life in the group should be characterized by collective relations. The teacher assured by designing the life that children use with greater responsibility and autonomy for compliance with the order of life and their relationships more and more to the norms of socialist morality learn ”  .
The kindergarten of the GDR was part of the general education system, with the other social institutions, such as family, school, young pioneers, people’s police, etc., stood in close connection. His task was to Netti Christensen , a leading East German scientist of the kindergarten teachers, the fact that “the results from the structure of our anti-fascist democratic order: to educate our children to progressive Democrats to conscious and active builders of a brighter and happier future for our people ”  .
Operation of the kindergarten Schultheiss brewery , Berlin 1949
Harvest Kindergarten Thörey , 1955
Children playing in the nursery crop in life Henning , 1961
The end of 1971 stood in the FRG for every 100 children in kindergarten places available  :
72.2 places in Stuttgart
59.6 places in Würzburg
59.3 places in Saarbrücken
58.4 Places in Mainz
57.1 places in Frankfurt am Main
48.0 places in Augsburg
43.9 places in Nuremberg
43.1 Places in Munich
40.4 places in Regensburg
39.1 places in Dortmund
33.9 places in Cologne
31.8 places in Bremen
30.7 places in West Berlin
23.4 Places in Hamburg
17.5 places in Kiel
Kindergarten in the GDR (1979)
In the GDR there were approximately 11 359 kindergartens in 1972, where 659 000 children were cared for. In the pre-school facilities were available for 100 children of preschool age 69.2 spaces. 1989 virtually every child could be made if necessary, a nursery place.
Children playing in a nursery school in Erfurt, 1988
A special form of kindergarten is the kindergarten school .
The nursery school as an educational institution .
The pedagogy of early childhood and kindergarten are currently accompanying a classical education in the local focus of public discussion. The kindergarten as an important institution in the education structure has attracted the interest of professionals, politicians and large sections of the population. Currently, the change is from the kindergarten as an educational institution with a strong support contract back to the kindergarten as an educational institution. Several states have designed programs to improve the quality of education. Initiatives such as PIK (professionals in kindergarten) of the Robert Bosch Foundation seek a professional at work. In Germany’s federal system, the provinces have each developed their own educational plans, broken down into different areas of education, but always present a holistic view of education. The child must be in its systems and stages of development promoted a holistic individual. Here are the resources and not the shortcomings of the individual child in the foreground. The orientation plan in Baden-Württemberg, for example, stressed that education is not to be understood as schooling and learning content to be transferred from primary school to kindergarten. The aim of the orientation plan is to understand the child care centers based on the latest findings of cognitive science as the primary educational institutions in terms of a holistic funding to expand. The children should be promoted according to their individual abilities and deficits are recognized in time. Focus is on the so-called education and development fields. These include the areas of body, mind, language, thinking, feeling and compassion, and sense of values and religion  .
A study on cost-benefit ratio of the Institute of German Economy in Cologne in 2006, commissioned by the Initiative New Social Market Economy, came to the conclusion that Bins a free in Germany nationwide provision of half-day places the initial high additional costs of around 3.6 billion euros rather soon by a better early childhood education offset, particularly for children from paintball gear so-called educated classes, more than good.  kindergarten places are not in Germany for free, and it is for parents no duty to their children attending a kindergarten or a similar institution to enable .
Legal claim .
Since 1996, Germany has a legal right under the Child and Youth Welfare Act (KJHG) to a (half-day) kindergarten ( Federal Constitutional Court in ruling on the § 218 of the Criminal Code , see § 24 SGB VIII  ) for children from the age of three to enrollment . For younger and older children should be provided as required courses. Some states have state law providing more extensive legal claim is determined. This is sometimes conditioned: Children have a right only if their parents are working or otherwise prevented from exercising their legal obligation. Again, this claim is not necessarily tied to proximity, but to ensure only within the community.
Due to a revision in KJHG lie, since 2006 data on occupied seats in the nurseries and day-care, enrollment rates, number and training of professionals and childminders, etc. before. This data is annually at 15 March raised and now allow differentiated statements about user behavior and the structure of supply for Germany as a whole, the individual states to the county level. In particular, the service rates / participation rates (percentage of children looked after in the total population of relevant age group) will find a lively and public interest, for the year 2006 they are listed in the table.
Country 0-3 years 3-6 years
The amount of the kindergarten fee is set by individual local authorities in Germany and varies considerably in Germany. In some municipalities, and in some states there is at least for certain age cost of freedom.    Typically, the costs on the number and age of children, household size, length of care time and the parents’ income is differentiated.
In the kindergarten year 2009/2010 amounted to 100 surveyed municipalities the cost of caring for a four year old child in the second year of kindergarten for the daily minimum visit time (at least 4 hours) for one year between € 0 and € 1752 (for parents with 45,000 € gross annual income) or 2520 € (for parents with 80.000 € gross annual income. The Bankruptcy cost for the simultaneous support of a three and a half year old child in the first year of kindergarten and a five and a half year old child best credit cards together amounted to € 2,672 or € 3,696.  60% of families with children have one or two children . 
In Austria there are no such legal right. In practice, there may be delays in some areas from the time of registration to hold up to one year. But since the birth rate is declining, at least in urban areas rather places available. The kindergartens are a matter for the states . Accordingly, cost contributions by the parents are different. In some states is to only pay for the food, in others, the staggered social costs. Often cover private kindergartens, which are more expensive, at peak times, which are not covered by public institutions for lack of greater demand. From the autumn of 2009, the nursery school but, at least for five-to six-year-old kids, so for those who attend only one year to kindergarten mandatory.
In Switzerland, in most cantons a legal right to visit a kindergarten by a year or two. A bill by the Conference of Cantonal Ministers of Education (EDK) of 16 February 2006 also stipulates that children enter compulsory from the age of four years in a kindergarten or a so-called entry level. In some cantons such as Basel-Stadt , the kindergarten requirement already exists. Currently, in most go cantons of Switzerland , the children in the 5th and 6th Age to kindergarten, before enrollment. Typical is a workload of approximately 60% or 6 half-days. Administratively, the kindergartens in most cantons are positioned schulnah. However, significant changes are currently underway. In the context of the changing social and family structures in many communities block times introduced, and the number of so-called day nurseries, where children can stay for lunch to eat increases. Market arising from a work of parents still care gaps, these are often carried lunches , day care centers , day care covered government help or grandparents. This development in the nursery runs parallel to that in the schools (block hours, day schools ) and has a similar political dynamic.
International comparison .
United Kingdom .
The first school year is called in England and Wales “reception” or the “year zero”. Day care centers, which are not integrated in the school system, “Nursery School” called. The term Nursery School is also often replaced with the term kindergarten, but only for promotional purposes. In Scotland, the term kindergarten is generally not the name given to Nursery School. The first year of education in Scotland as a ” Primary 1 “means.
In Sweden , for example, educators are seen CrossFit Denver as teachers . The staff has high school, and most have a teaching degree with an emphasis on kindergarten / preschool. The nursery is already at an earlier age of a child, from about 1 year. Entitled to a paid full-time kindergarten have until the last year before school starts but only children whose parents are working, with two parents both must be employed. This is not the case, there is only entitled to 15 hours a week. The cost depends on total income, car insurance comparison but have a maximum of 1260 SEK / month (2006). The second child pays half and the third is free. For the year before school starts is a free place for every child in the preschool to. The four-hour per day participation is voluntary for the children. In kindergarten, they learn how to deal with complex situations and the alphabet. There are craft activities, sing and read and early language skills are trained. Deliberately complex to hang pictures with people and cultural achievements instead of bunnies and stick figures.
Due to the high proportion of migrant children, language support is in the child care centers a now a wide space.
The Finnish education system is according to the PISA study as one of the best in the world. For children in Finland, for example, the following applies: The senior high school teachers and have a high school education. The kindergarten is possible for children from the first year of life. The group size is about 14 children. Foreign language learning or scientific experiments in the kindergarten are encouraged.
Hungary played an important role in the development of kindergartens, see the ” history “. Kindergarten education in Hungary for decades in higher education. In Hungary, every child from the age of entitlement to a Preschooler place in his diocese. Individual variations are possible. The maintenance of kindergartens is – apart from private sources – the object of the local self-government. The nursery school is compulsory from the age of five. The children are prepared for participation in the group and school life. It is strictly forbidden in this year the children reading, writing, arithmetic, teach etc.. The educational work of the nursery is free of charge. Only the food and part of the learning materials that may apply to be paid. In calculating the fees, the current social situation of the family is followed meticulously. Many are exempt from payment. The Hungarian educational day care center for day care. The visiting hours of a child can still take place perfectly adapted to the individual needs of the family.
United States .
One of the first kindergartens in the United States in La Porte, Indiana. Around 1855.
The first private kindergarten  in the United States was in German and in 1856 by a student of Froebel Margarethe Schurz founded in Watertown (Wisconsin). A monument is a reminder of it. She was the wife of Carl Schurz , the revolutionary freedom fighters who had fled from Germany in 1848. Elizabeth Peabody was inspired by Margarethe Schurz and instructed in the Froebel’s ideas and founded in 1860 in Boston ( Massachusetts ), the first English-language kindergarten. The German emigrants, journalist and teacher Adolph Douai (1819-1888) was also in Boston – but in 1859 – the first public (German) kindergarten according to the ideas of the German educator Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel (1782-1852) founded; more kindergartens founded Douai, then from 1866 in New York City . The concept of kindergartens as part of the school system put William Nicholas Hailmann through.
Today in the U.S., the nursery is almost always the primary schools (are elementary schools ) affiliated to the part of the American school system is. This nursery is a one-year program – the so-called grade “K” – can be taught in the basic skills in reading and numeracy among others. Participation is free and voluntary. The staffing of American kindergarten is much better than those of the kindergartens in Germany. Thus, for example, work more easily with learning disabled children be than here, because the appropriate personnel in addition to the regular staff / inside thanks to the No Child Left Behind program, which belongs to the general U.S. education policy, not only in kindergarten, is available . After signing up, however, is a strict curriculum. The school day of kindergarten children is similar to the rest of elementary school students (All Day, Every Day Kindergarten). However, there is this All Day, Every Day Kindergarten only in some states. In the remaining states, the children do so only every other day (usually on Mondays, Wednesdays and every other Friday or Tuesday, Thursday and Friday each other) to school or the whole week before or the afternoon. At the nursery follows the visit of the first class. The classes will be reassembled and preserved for new teachers or teachers. The date of enrollment is in most American families do not celebrate the start of the first class, but the admission of the child in the kindergarten.
Child Day Care .
From kindergarten as part of the state education system, the other early promotion and care programs are to be distinguished, which are available in the U.S. in large numbers and diversity. German kindergartens are closest to Day Care Centers and Nursery Schools who are equally as schools such as day care for children of working parents. The maternity leave in the U.S. expires twelve weeks after birth, and is there a but more extensive training time by either the employers or state support, promote and support Day Care Center children from 3 months to 5 years.
Day Care Centers receive no government funding, but are often subsidized by local employers. In addition, depending on the business acumen of management raised some significant private funding ( fundraising ). Visiting a Day Care Center is costly and many times more expensive than in German kindergartens. Parents with low income can support, but often, that is, apply a reduced rate. The service hours are flexible and allow parents normal working hours. The children are divided into groups of peers, the groups with increasing age of the children growing, but barely reach the size of primary classes. Day Care Centers in more expensive not only teachers (to be teachers ) and semi-skilled counselors employed, but there are also free people into the house to give lessons in special subjects such as languages, music, dance or yoga.
Quality and features vary widely. For quality assurance ensures on the one hand, the lobby of the (paying) parents and other institutions such as the National Association for the Education of Young Children , the much acclaimed express accreditations.
Early intervention programs .
Among the offerings in particular the promotion of private ownership, such as churches or YMCA , supported preschools and the state program Head Start call. As a part-time program are the preschools , the equivalent of half-day care to kindergarten children.
In China, the kindergarten is seen simultaneously as a preschool. The translation for kindergarten is there, “you he yuan” (幼儿园). More and more, is there a run on high performance training focused concentration. (See Web Links )
In Japan, a distinction between kindergarten ( 幼稚园 , yōchien ) and nursery ( 保育所 , hoikusho (legal name) or 保育园 , hoikuen (common name)). Hoikuen accept children from 0 years, with most facilities provide a minimum of two months. The care is usually offered Monday through Saturday and is based on the school calendar. The nursery takes children aged two to five years. The children by age (2-3 years and 4-5 years) divided into groups. There is a fixed daily routine to help the children settle. The groups are led by two teachers ( 先生 , sensei ) and possibly an assistant care. The teachers are qualified with a university degree. The level of professionalism to the training of German teachers hardly comparable. For example, learning the piano is part of the training. Music and art play an important role Japanese kindergarten. Usually there is an additional staff in addition to the normal art teachers (and physical education teacher).
2010, there were 13 392 kindergartens, of which 8236 private, with about 110,000 full-time teachers and 1.6 million children. 
Children 6 years in a kindergarten class in Alanya
Students in a kindergarten
The nursery school is a school for very young children to prepare them for basic learning of reading , of writing and calculating . This is a preparatory period to elementary education: primary objectives are the socialization , the development of language , the number and graphic gesture.
These facilities are designated according to the country under the name of kindergarten (France, Quebec), kindergarten (Switzerland) or nursery school (formerly Belgium).
It provides care for children whose parents work or not work and allows children to socialize and learn gradually to schooling.
In France , the nursery school is for young children of 3 (sometimes 2) for 5 years. Although optional, the French nursery school receives about one quarter of children two years, 95% of children aged three and 98% of children aged four and five. During the 2007 presidential election, candidates of the left have proposed to advance the age of compulsory education from 6 to 3 years, taking this as a proposal by the Teachers Union -UNSA.
In Switzerland, since September 2010, compulsory education lasts 11 years, and as young as 4 years old at the start of August, allocated as follows: two years of kindergarten, six years of primary and three years of secondary. the kindergarten gives a pre-school education.
The first level of education in Quebec is at the preschool, which is not mandatory. It covers pre-kindergarten and kindergarten . The latter, although pre-school, is often incorporated into elementary schools in Quebec.
The first reception centers for very young children open at the end of the xviii th century with initiatives like that of Pastor John Frederick Oberlin creating from 1771 a “school of knitwear” in the Vosges. Other creations are closer to the current day care. This type of school is developing especially in early xix th century with the industrial revolution . Their primary purpose is essentially social: it is a place of protection offered to children of workers, in order to avoid the dangers of the street. That’s why kindergarten is first named room asylum or hospitality room as the one founded by Adelaide Piscatory of Vaufreland , Marquise de Pastoret.
In the years 1810-1820, the pattern of infant schools in the UK inspired by pioneers like Emily Oberkampf . The latter meets from 1826 other women who want to spread these institutions and opened the first infant school in Paris in 1828 . In 1831 , a “normal course for the training of teachers” is created. In subsequent years, infant schools develop in a more educational. In 1836 , they are submitted to the Ministry of Education and are being provided with a status the following year. The Falloux Law ( 1850 ) devotes three short articles that mark the will to leave a greater freedom to private infant schools, to organize the state control over them and integrate them into the school system in n ‘ hesitating to use the term programs .
But infant schools develop especially under the Second Empire , through the action of Mary Pope-Carpantier . They take the name of kindergarten , first time on 28 April 1848 , officially only in 1881 , during the Third Republic , under the authority of Kergomard Pauline , who was the first Inspector General. This opposes the trend whereby schools make these places full of instruction, rather wanting to promote the “natural development” of the child.
Kindergarten has been designed from the outset as to accommodate the children of both sexes and thus constituted the only schools to practice diversity , long denied to other levels of education. As for the adults responsible for caring for children in these schools, it was exclusively women.
In 2006-2007, 23.4% of two year olds were enrolled in France (182,021 students), according to ministry figures, against 35.3% in 2000-2001, according to the website of the magazine L’Express , the September 17, 2008 1 .
Kindergarten is aimed at young children of 3 (sometimes 2) to 5 years. It traditionally includes three classes: small ( PS ), the mean ( MS ) and high ( GS ) sections, and has sometimes a very small section ( GST ) for children under 3 years. His attendance is optional, childcare is not mandatory until age 6. It is open to all children residing in France, regardless of their nationality.
Although optional, the French nursery school hosts approximately 23% of two year olds, 95% of children three years and almost all children aged four and five. Very small classes (GST), small (PS), medium (MS) and high (GS) sections form the first learning cycle . Since the Act of 1989, class of large section belongs to both the first cycle of learning that takes place in kindergarten and basic learning cycle which also includes the preparatory course (CP) and the first basic course years (CE1) Elementary School.
Legally, kindergartens are not public self. They have no operating budget as the local public education (EPLE), colleges and high schools . The teachers and the teaching assistants and teaching assistants , depend on national education . The territorial agents specialized nursery schools ( ATSEM ) depend on the town hall. The municipality is responsible for building and funding the material costs.
Teachers belong to the same body – that of teachers (class B) now extinct and that of school teachers (Class A) – than those engaged in elementary schools. Nursery schools are grouped with the auto insurance quotes elementary schools in districts headed by Inspector of Education (NEI). It shall, among other tasks, evaluation of teachers in his district. The legislation requires the presence of a territorial agent specializing in nursery schools ( ATSEM ) for each kindergarten class (municipalities remain free to assess the rate classes by ATSEM). However, a ATSEM for two classes is the standard most often used, sometimes we find one of those C grades in each classroom to assist the teacher. These holders of CAP infancy are territorial agents, employees of the municipality in the school, who are responsible for assisting teachers in learning activities (without replacement), to help children in their activities of daily living (meals, hygiene …) and to assist in the preparation (or rehabilitation) physical activities.
If the director is not the supervisor of teachers, it is often the president of the cooperative school to which parents contribute – voluntarily and without obligation – and the town hall and, with a limited budget, allows to finance projects.
Note: Programs are subject to change, the information in this section are purely illustrative and are only the outlines of the courses, which are usually kept in the program changes.
Source: Official Gazette of Education HS1, 14/02/2002.
Since the Decree of 06/09/1990, following the guidance law of 1989 , primary education is organized in three cycles, multi-annual targets to be achieved either at the end of a school year, as before, but at end of cycle.
The nursery is involved in two cycles: the cycle as a whole or a learning cycle first, and only the GS with the cycle 2 or basic learning cycle, which also includes the first two levels of the elementary school : preparatory courses elementary level and one (CP-CE1).
Note: The large section of kindergarten is straddling two cycles.
The child has three years to acquire the skill set of the cycle considered. For example, a student entering in cycle 2 will have three years to acquire a current reading, and an explicit understanding of texts. This learning, distributed over the entire cycle, may be being acquired from the large section, for more mature, and during the preparatory course for most students, for some children, this learning is sometimes possible that in the year of CE1.
Cycle or a cycle of learning first .
Levels involved: the entire native (GST-PS-MS- GS ).
This cycle is organized around five key areas:
To appropriate the language (first learning of language: language of action, evocation and communication, development of faculties of abstraction, first experiences of the writing by graphic activities, discovery of the principle of alphabet … ).
Discover the writing
Become a student (exchange and communicate with peers and adults, participate in group activities …).
Act and speak with her body (physical activities as games, body language, articulation with other activities).
Discover the world (sensory findings, awareness of health problems, observation of the living world, approach the concepts of space and time, quantities and numbers …).
Perceive, feel, imagine, create (visual activities, drawing, vocal activities, play with the image and voice, musical activity with simple instruments: triangle, round, square …).
Round 2 or basic learning cycle .
Relevant levels: the GS K , plus the two first classes of elementary school (CP and CE1).
This cycle is organized around seven key areas:
Mastery of language and of French (dialogue, learning to read and write …).
Living together (learning the rules of life, discipline, first approach to citizenship …).
Mathematics (discovery of numbers, calculating (on paper, mental and instrumented), discovery of basic geometric shapes, sizes and measurements …).
Discover the world (introduction to materials science and humanities taught later, discovery and understanding of space, time, life, matter, and information technology …).
Foreign or regional language (introduction to cultural and linguistic diversity).
The Arts (drawing, singing, arts, crafts …).
Physical Education and Sports.
The kindergarten is an essential stage in the process of learning as children discover and gradually introduce the basics of classroom work and preparation for it is the first step of the child in the process of learning .
Essential learnings made during cycle 2 are evaluated for all students in CE2 during the month of September they enter Cycle 3. These evaluations are conducted on a national and uniform for all students in CE2.
The reform introduced by the Act of 1989, guided, first, by a desire to industrialize the process of education and the systematic assessment, and secondly, to satisfy the expectations of performance and precocity did not have the expected results, learning disabilities and academic failure have increased significantly
The kindergarten is the subject of criticism, including:
In educational terms: a report of the High Council of Education , published around 2007, he questioned the kindergarten school failure in the primary school .
Economically, July 3, 2008, the Minister of National Education Xavier Darcos told the Finance Committee of the Senate , on preschool children under three years: “Is it really logical while we are so concerned about the proper use of appropriations for the State, that we take examinations to bac + 5 to persons whose function is essentially to be napping children or change their layers? I ask myself, these people with the same skill such as if they were teachers in CM2 » 1 . Which resulted in a debate, relayed by the publication of at least one book on the possible abolition of the kindergarten 2 .
The advocates of the kindergarten highlight several arguments:
From an educational point of view: they highlight the quality of education provided ( socialization , language , development of skills , etc..).
From a physiological point of view: to enter kindergarten, the child usually does more layers. Teachers therefore have to change them. Children “may also be admitted to the availability of seats they have reached the age of 2 years from day of school, provided they are physically and psychologically ready to go.” Cleanliness can be a refusal of the child in kindergarten (but not the only one).
From an economic point of view: they highlight the cost of childcare, which would be less for the community to school with other types of care [ref. required] .
Primary schooling takes place in kindergarten and elementary school, each structure is the responsibility of a principal or both structures are collectively known as “primary” and placed under the responsibility of one manager. In private education, all schools are primary schools.
A demonstration school is an elementary school or kindergarten as another, more involved in the training of future school teachers (teachers). Demonstration schools were connected until 1991 for teacher training colleges and teachers who were teaching application “applied” (put into practice) what students learned in theory to the normal school. The colleges were replaced in 1991 by IUFM ( University Institute of Teacher Training ) similar to themselves, but work differently since 2010. In 2011, demonstration schools still exist, as the masters of application (master trainers) who teach there. They are teachers who have a qualification certified trainer, who have a class like any other but that regularly in their class of future teachers in training. They are relieved of a class of their time of service on which they will visit their students in other schools where they conduct internships responsibility. They give courses combining theory and practice, advising and assessing. They are usually seasoned masters, at the forefront of education, teachers ‘models’.